CHAPTER 1 The Problem and Literature Review Background of the Problem

CHAPTER 1
The Problem and Literature Review
Background of the Problem
(The Republic Act No. 10533 or Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013) states that the current educational basis must be practiced in the Philippines is the K-12 Curriculum, wherein a child must finish one year for Preparation School, two years in Kindergarten, and six years in Elementary, a total of eight years in Primary Level. The student must also complete a total of six years in Secondary, four years in Junior High School and 2 years of Senior High School. After six years in Primary Level, a student steps into High School. The first year in Secondary Level is called Grade 7 where in most lessons will be about basic subjects. This is equivalent to First Year High School in the old educational curriculum. The school of Ramon Pascual Institute offers K-12 Curriculum which includes the Junior high school (Grade 7 to Grade 10) and the Senior High School (Grade 11 to Grade 12).
The tradition method of teaching involves the use of a blackboard and chalk or whiteboard and board makers for the entirety of the class. The teachers who use this method also make use of traditional method in the form of papers and sheets attached to the class board, In this method of teaching, technology and gadgets play a huge part in class discussion and classroom activities because we are now the 21st century learners, we are so called the millennial. The Multi-Media Method is essential and a must for the current generation of learners and students. The new and technological method of Multi-Media Teaching gives a wide range of techniques which helps in the education of students. This kind of method understands today’s generation and becomes relatable to the students, making them interested in class and motivating them to study. The RPI started to introduce the multi-media method in the year of 2015. The researchers must determine the significant differences in the two teaching methods presented, which are the Traditional and the Multi-Media Teaching.

Literature Review
The K to 12 ProgramAccording to the Department of Education, the K to 12 Program covers 13 years of basic education with the following key stages: Kindergarten to Grade 3, Grades 4 to 6, Grades 7 to 10 (Junior High School), Grades 11 and 12 (Senior High S
chool). The current curriculum has been enhanced for K to 12 and now gives more focus to allow mastery of learning for the new Senior High School grades (Grades 11 and 12), core subjects such as Mathematics, Science and Language will be strengthened. Specializations or tracks in students’ areas of interest will also be offered.
According to a thesis of Rose Marie Seco-Macarandan. The K to 12 programs is enriched by having the four twenty first century skills. These skills include information, media and technology skills, learning and innovation skills, life and careers skills and effective communication skills (BEP, 2012). Information, media and technology skills include: 1) visual and information literacies, 2) media literacy, 3) basic, scientific, economic and technological literacies, and 4) multicultural literacy and global awareness.

According to the DepEd, Education Secretary Leonor Briones affirmed that the K to 12 education programs is primarily geared to benefit Filipino learners and the country. She added, “We are doing K to 12 for ourselves and for the Philippine education. We are doing this to be able to compete in our own country so that we can equip our learners with appropriate skills, creativity, and intelligence to cope with the changing world.” The K to 12 is the innovative curriculum of DepEd which covers Kindergarten and 12 years of basic education. The program aims to provide sufficient time for mastery of concepts and skills, develop life-long learners and prepare graduates for tertiary education, middle-level skills development, employment, and entrepreneurship.

According to Uyquiengco, M. that the K-12 curriculum is more than just adding a year to your child’s schooling. The K 12 curriculum is designed to enable graduates to join the work force right after high school, and suitably prepare those who want to go on to higher education. All in all, the enhanced K 12 curriculum is designed to provide a holistic education for all. Now decongested, it will give students ample time to master basic academic skills as well as to participate in co-curricular and community activities.

According to Shahani, L.R (Philstar.com), with the introduction of K-12, there will be an increase in student population, translating into a requirement for 20,000 to 28,000 additional classrooms for each additional year-level; 40,000 to 56,000 classrooms for the two years of SHS. Another pressing issue is the retrenchment of teaching and non-teaching college personnel. An estimated 25,000 are being held at bay. DepEd, however, says that it has closed the gap of 66,800 classroom shortage in 2010 and has built 86,478 classrooms between 2010 to 2014. This year, an additional 27,499 classrooms
are on line to be constructed to cover the SHS implementation in 2016. DepEd has announced that it will be hiring 39,000 additional teachers in 2016 to meet the personnel requirements of the program. This demand for SHS teachers is proposed as mitigation for the faculty lay-offs in higher education institutions. This is an important point, since many junior faculty look to their teaching careers for funding to pursue higher academic degrees. Among teachers, there are deep-seated anxieties about the new duties expected of them. DepEd has been conducting numerous teacher trainings to address these concerns, but there is a sense that things remain confused and unsettled. Most likely, uneasiness and suspicion among teachers will linger until the new system is in place and they have a chance to work through it and make the needed adjustments. In addition, there still remains the problem of language: what to do with Filipino, how to sustain its place in the curriculum, and what will the changes, mean for teaching the language in colleges and universities? For that matter, has the English curriculum been chosen in haste, as some critics allege? What of the adequacy and quality of some of our textbooks and instructional materials? Can schools coordinate better to strengthen job placement for their students?
The Grade 7 Students
According to Caskey ; Anfara (2014), The study of the authors focuses on the possible developmental changes of the parameters that can guide an adolescent like grade 7 students learning. Physical Changes occurs when a stage of an adolescent to change their appearance drastically (puberty). The Brain also benefits to this due to the improvement of a young minds thinking skills, decision making, etc.

According to Caskey ; Anfara (2014), The study also tackled the development of a young adolescent is an intellectual kind of manner. The young mind of a young adolescent can also understand some things lesson that they think that it is completely farfetched before. The things that they have not understood long ago can finally be unveiled. They now can make a stand on think about arguments that can be plausible to our way of life. These people want to learn more about things and are interested about outside activities so that they can interact, experience thing that a adolescent has never done before.

According to Caskey ; Anfara (2014), this section of the study focuses on the possible moral parameters that a young adolescent can apply it in their minds. It is the parameter that allows you to do the right decision making. And allow the person to use their empathic skills to understand the situation of other people; so that many people can understand the things an individual has been through; preventing any misjudge or any false accusations; Developing the adolescence’s morale from a degenerated narcissist to a positive eyed realist.

According to Ghezzi (2016),that the characteristics of young adolescents especially to those who are entering high school for the first-time changes dramatically. High School is the good time for young adolescents to leave their childish ways and pursue things that might catch their interests. They get rid of their childish things because they are all grown up. But here is the downside. They do not seem to focus on their studies anymore because of their blossoming interest in new and exciting things, it as if that they lose the meaning of studying hard anymore. Instead of the usual books
they have in school they instead bring their phones, and other things the amuse them. They are starting to be unorganized and irresponsible. They usually don’t do their assignments anymore. They have the tendency to be bored in class discussions. They are so much focused on their social lives that the studies are being left behind. And this is where drastic changes must be made. This article also stated that to avoid some of these things to happen in a family. The parent must take the matters upon themselves; through disciplinary actions. Enforce rule and never to be afraid to do these rules because every action of an adolescent has a consequence.

According to J L (2014), that an adolescent like for example some grade 7 students tend to confuse themselves and still has childish characteristics in her. It is not easy for an adolescent person to accept the fact that they must act their age and be responsible. But this is the conflict between the person age and the proper way of acting like one. Some adolescent people don’t seem to understand the true meaning of growing up yet; but someday they’ll learn.

The Traditional Teaching
According to Adams (2014) Schools need to put more effort into evaluating what makes effective teaching, and ensure that discredited practices are rooted out from classrooms, according to a new study published by the Sutton Trust and Durham University. The study suggests that some schools and teachers continue using methods that cause little or no improvement in student progress, and instead rely on anecdotal evidence to back fashionable techniques such as “discovery learning,” where pupils are
meant to uncover key ideas for themselves, or “learning styles,” which claims children can be divided into those who learn best through sight, sound or movement. Instead, more traditional styles that reward effort, use class time efficiently and insist on clear rules to manage pupil behavior, are more likely to succeed, according to the report touching on a raw nerve within the British teaching profession, which has seen vigorous debates between “progressive” and “traditional” best practice.

According to Gwynne (2014), The most recent of these invitations was from a large school – 1300 children – in Coventry called the Sidney Stringer Academy. Back in March, Mrs Nicola Neto, a teacher and Latin-enthusiast, who had been allowed to start teaching Latin to the top class, saw an article about my teaching in this very newspaper. She noticed in it my often-repeated claim that, because of modern teaching-methods and the Cambridge Latin Course used in most schools, I had been finding that that I could teach children more Latin in half an hour than they had learnt in several years at school. She sent me an e-mail concluding: “Please, do come and give my class a half hour session. I would be eternally grateful.” I was delighted to agree and, as it happened, Mr. Neto’s class, I am sure to her great pleasure, did markedly, and to me surprisingly, better than any other group of children that I had given lessons to. For my part, I was content that the class – in fact an hour-long – was a great success, in both its immediate and its longer-term effects. But, possibly my uppermost reaction was to rejoice that the class had been recorded for all time – as it had been on the day. My reason is this; a crucially important teaching-principle, unknown today, is that “one can only teach as one was taught oneself.”

According to The Conversation (2014), The Chinese favour a “chalk and talk” approach, whereas countries such as the UK, US, Australia and New Zealand have been
moving away from this direct form of teaching to a more collaborative form of learning where students take greater control. It seems we have been misguided in abandoning
the traditional, teacher-directed method of learning where the teacher spends more time standing at the front of the class, directing learning and controlling classroom activities.

According to Schrader (2013), Traditional teaching is the expectation that students will learn because we tell them to. If I were to create a spectrum of teaching practices from traditional to non-traditional, I think I would use the above as my criteria. Moving away from traditional educational practices has less to do with technology or technique and more to do with context and motivation. Whenever I assume that the person I am working with will learn because I am telling them, the more traditional I am being. It isn’t so much that “kids learn differently these days” or even that there are boundless opportunities for learning and discovery in our technology-rich world – though both are true and part of the push. We need to continue moving this direction because learning out of compliance has always yielded superficial understanding for most people and limited the highest levels of achievement to those individuals who were able to find personal meaning and intrinsic motivations despite the system in which they were learning. Therefore, so many ideas of progressive education don’t sound all that new to people who have been teaching for a long time.

According to Guevarra (2012), Traditional teaching is concerned with the teacher being the controller of the learning environment. Power and responsibility are held by
the teacher and they play the role of instructor (in the form of lectures) and decision maker (regarding curriculum content and specific outcomes). They regard students as having ‘knowledge holes’ that need to be filled with information. In short, the traditional teacher views that it is the teacher that causes learning to occur.

The Multi-Media Teaching
According to Arvind (2014), Multimedia enables students to represent information using several different media. Hypermedia links allow students to organize information in meaningful ways. Multimedia can consider different learning styles. Some students learn by interpreting text, while others require more graphical or aural representations. Multimedia allows for self-pacing and discovery, students can take the time they need and choose the path of learning making learning meaningful and pleasurable. Multimedia helps in development of higher order thinking skills. Interactive multimedia encourages student. Multimedia provided the students the flexibility of anywhere, ‘any time’ learning. Multimedia helps in developing group and interpersonal skills. Better communication between students via e-mail, chat sessions etc., can encourage collaborative learning and enhance student-teacher interaction. Multimedia helps students to learn the content in each discipline. It helps students to think effectively, practice problem solving and decision making.

According to Santosh (2013) “Multimedia can stimulate more than one sense at a time, and in doing so, may be more attention-getting and attention-holding.” Multimedia, the term defines using more than one medium of expression or communication. In other words, it is the combination of various digital media types
such as text, images, sound and video, into an integrated multi-sensory interactive application or presentation to convey a message or information to an audience. Using multimedia in classroom helps educators engage students and provide them with valuable learning opportunities. It’s easy to remember a picture than a paragraph, an animated video of a concept worth more of a lecture and a video demonstration of a process (or an instrument) by a scientist gives more real-time knowledge than a theoretical explanation. There are no doubt educators consider multimedia as a great tool to improve student learning. Here are a few benefits of using multimedia in classroom. Multimedia empowers students to create and design rather than absorb representations created by others. It improves reflective thinking, also provides students with suitable learning resources according to their learning styles and abilities. Most of the educators and administrators are adopting latest educational technologies to reach the 21st century learning standards. Of all those tech approaches, usage of multimedia is one of the great tools to engage students. Let’s hear what educators suggest about new ways of using multimedia in classroom.

According to Meiers (2009), There is a growing body of evidence that use of Multi-Media teaching in the classroom can enhance learning. Computer-based multimedia learning environments – consisting of images, text and sound – offer a potentially powerful setting for improving student understanding. However, all multimedia resources are not equally effective, so the challenge teachers face is how to assess and select multimedia resources that best promote meaningful learning. How can we use words and pictures to help students explore the life stories of significant Indigenous figures.