Throughout literature, an authors works almost always reflect their mood and character. Edgar Allan Poe was an American writer whose short stories and poems reflected his dramatic moods. One of Poes poems, “The Raven,” is about a raven that flies into the home of a sad and lonely man. This poem best expresses Poes sense of despair and gloominess because the literary elements used in the poem are a constant reference to them. He was known for using various writing techniques such as Gothic techniques and German romanticism rather than American experience. Poes writings have been debated since his death, but his works have remained popular and many major American and European writers have professed their artistic debt to him. . Poes work as an editor, a poet, and a critic had a profound impact on American and international literature. His stories mark him as one of the originators of both horror and detective fiction. Many anthologies credit him as the “architect” of the modern short story. He was also one of the first critics to focus primarily on the effect of the style and of the structure in a literary work.
Edgar Allan Poe was born in Boston, Massachusetts, on January 19, 1809. Poes father and mother were both professional actors and died before the poet was three. Poe was orphaned in his early childhood and was raised by John Allan, a successful businessman of Richmond, Virginia. Taken by the Allan family to England at the age of six, Poe was placed in a private school. Upon returning to the United States in 1820, he continued to study in private schools. He attended the University of Virginia for a year, but in 1827 his foster father, displeased by the young mans drinking and gambling, refused to pay his debts and forced him to work as a clerk. Poe, disliking his new duties intensely, quit the job, thuse stranging Allan, and went to Boston. There his first book, Tamerlane and Other Poems (1827), was published anonymously. Shortly afterward Poe enlisted in theU.S. Army and served a two-year term. In 1829 his second volume of verse, Al Aaraaf, was published, and he effected a reconciliation with Allan, who secured him an appointment to the U.S. Military Academy. After only a few months at the academy Poe was dismissed for neglect of duty, and his foster father disowned him permanently. Poes third book, Poems, appeared in 1831, and the following year he moved to Baltimore, where he lived with his aunt and her 11-year-old daughter, Virginia Clemm. The following year his tale ???A MS. Found in a Bottle??? won a contest sponsored by the Baltimore Saturday Visitor. From 1835 to 1837 Poe was an editor of the Southern Literary Messenger. In 1836 he married his young cousin. Throughout the next decade, much of which was marred by his wifes long illness, Poe worked as an editor for various periodicals in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and in New York City. In 1847 Virginia died and Poe himself became ill; his disastrous addiction to liquor and his alleged use of drugs, recorded by contemporaries, may have contributed to his early death. After less than one year of school, however, he was forced to leave the University when Allan refused to pay his gambling debts. Poe returned briefly to Richmond, but his relationship with Allan deteriorated. In 1827, he moved to Boston and enlisted in the United States Army. His first collection of poems, Tamerlane, and Other Poems, was published that year. In 1829, he published a second collection entitled Al Aaraaf, Tamerlane, and Minor Poems. Neither volume received significant critical or public attention. Following his Army service, Poe was admitted to the United States Military Academy, but he was again forced to leave for lack of financial support. He then moved into the home of his aunt, Mrs. Maria Clemm and her daughter Virginia, in Baltimore, Maryland. Poe began to sell short stories to magazines at around this time, and, in 1835, he became the editor of the Southern Literary Messenger in Richmond. He brought his aunt and twelve-year-old cousin, Virginia Clemm, with him to Richmond. He married Virginia in 1836;
Edgar Allen Poe was an amazing writer not to mention all the historical evnts that took place in his short life term between October 9th 1849 to November 1875. The Battle Hymn of the Republic is is an American abolitionist song. The lyrics were written by Julia Ward Howe in November 1861 and first published in The Atlantic Monthly in February 1862. It became popular during the American Civil War. William Henry Harrison delivered the longest Inaugural address, at 8,445 words, on March 4, 1841??”a bitterly cold, wet day. He died one month later of pneumonia, believed to have been brought on by prolonged exposure to the elements on his Inauguration Day.The Gettysburg Address is a speech by Abraham Lincoln and is one of the most well known speeches in United States history. It was delivered by Lincoln at the dedication of the Soldiers National Cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, on the afternoon of Thursday, November 19, 1863, during the American Civil War, four and a half months after the Union armies defeated those of the Confederacy at the decisive Battle of Gettysburg.The Emancipation Proclamation The Emancipation Proclamation was issued on September 22, 1862, and it officially went into effect January 1, 1863, during the second year of the American Civil War. It was Abraham Lincolns declaration that all slaves in the states which had seceded from the Union, and which were not at the time under Federal control, were now emancipated; that is to say, were considered free. This action had almost no immediate effect, since it was impossible for the Federal government to implement it in those regions where it actually applied — namely the states in rebellion that were not under Federal control.Slaves in the states which remained loyal to the Union were not affected, and remained in slavery until the ratification of the thirteenth amendment to the U.S. Constitution in 1865. Thus the impact of the proclamation was more symbolic than real. William Seward, Lincolns Secretary of State, commented on this by remarking, “We show our sympathy with slavery by emancipating slaves where we cannot reach them and holding them in bondage where we can set them free.” The American Civil War was a civil war in the United States of America between 1861??“1865. Eleven Southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America (the Confederacy). The Confederates, led by Jefferson Davis fought against (the Union), which was supported by all the free states and the five border slave states.
In an analysis of ???the raven??? and ???the black cat??? there are symbols, , .A lonely man tries to ease his “sorrow for the lost Lenore,” by distracting his mind with old books of “forgotten lore.” Symbols in this poem, one of the most famous American poems ever, Poe uses several symbols to take the poem to a higher level. The most obvious symbol is, of course, the raven itself. When Poe had decided to use a refrain that repeated the word “nevermore,” he found that it would be most effective if he used a non-reasoning creature to utter the word. It would make little sense to use a human, since the human could reason to answer the questions. In “The Raven” it is important that the answers to the questions are already known, to illustrate the self-torture to which the narrator exposes himself. This way of interpreting signs that do not bear a real meaning, is “one of the most profound impulses of human nature.
Poe also considered a parrot as the bird instead of the raven; however, because of the melancholy tone, and the symbolism of ravens as birds of ill-omen, he found the raven more suitable for the mood in the poem. Quoth the Parrot, “Nevermore” Another obvious symbol is the bust of Pallas. Why did the raven decide to perch on the goddess of wisdom One reason could be, because it would lead the narrator to believe that the raven spoke from wisdom, and was not just repeating its only “stock and store,” and to signify the scholarship of the narrator. Another reason for using “Pallas” in the poem was, according to Poe himself, simply because of the “sonorousness of the word, Pallas, itself”. A less obvious symbol, might be the use of “midnight” in the first verse, and “December” in the second verse. Both midnight and December, symbolize an end of something and December is the month of his mothers passing. The chamber in which the narrator is positioned, is used to signify the loneliness of the man, and the sorrow he feels for the loss of Lenore. The room is richly furnished, and reminds the narrator of his lost love, which helps to create an effect of beauty in the poem. The tempest outside, is used to even more signify the isolation of this man, to show a sharp contrast between the calmness in the chamber and the tempestuous night. Edgar Allan Poe wrote an essay on the creation of “The Raven,” entitled “The Philosophy of Composition.” In that essay Poe describes the work of composing the poem as if it were a mathematical problem, and derides the poets that claim that they compose “by a species of fine frenzy – an ecstatic intuition – and would positively shudder at letting the public take a peep behind the scenes.” Whether Poe was as calculating as he claims when he wrote “The Raven” or not is a question that cannot be answered; it is, however, unlikely that he created it exactly like he described in his essay. The thoughts occurring in the essay might well have occurred to Poe while he was composing it. In “The Philosophy of Composition,” Poe stresses the need to express a single effect when the literary work is to be read in one sitting. A poem should always be written short enough to be read in one sitting, and should, therefore, strive to achieve this single, unique effect. Consequently, Poe figured that the length of a poem should stay around one hundred lines, and “The Raven” is 108 lines. The most important thing to consider in “Philosophy” is the fact that “The Raven,” as well as many of Poes tales, is written backwards. The effect is determined first, and the whole plot is set; then the web grows backwards from that single effect. Poes “tales of ratiocination,” e.g. the Dupin tales, are written in the same manner. “Nothing is more clear than that every plot, worth the name, must be elaborated to its denouement before anything be attempted with the pen” It was important to Poe to make “The Raven” “universally appreciable.” It should be appreciated by the public, as well as the critics. Poe chose Beauty to be the theme of the poem, since “Beauty is the sole legitimate province of the poem”.After choosing Beauty as the province, Poe considered sadness to be the highest manifestation of beauty. “Beauty of whatever kind in its supreme development invariably excites the sensitive soul to tears. Melancholy is thus the most legitimate of all the poetical tones”
Of all melancholy topics, Poe wanted to use the one that was universally understood, and therefore, he chose Death as his topic. Poe (along with other writers) believed that the death of a beautiful woman was the most poetical use of death, because it closely allies itself with Beauty.
After establishing subjects and tones of the poem, Poe started by writing the stanza that brought the narrators “interrogation” of the raven to a climax, the third verse from the end, and he made sure that no preceeding stanza would “surpass this in rythmical effect.” Poe then worked backwards from this stanza and used the word “Nevermore” in many different ways, so that even with the repetition of this word, it would not prove to be monotonous.
Poe builds the tension in this poem up, stanza by stanza, but after the climaxing stanza he tears the whole thing down, and lets the narrator know that there is no meaning in searching for a moral in the ravens “nevermore”. The Raven is established as a symbol for the narrators “Mournful and never-ending remembrance.” “And my soul from out that shadow, that lies floating on the floor, shall be lifted – nevermore!” Edgar Allan Poe wrote that the single effect was the most important aspect of a short story, which everything must contribute to this effect. Poe??™s gothic tale ???The Black Cat??? was written trying to achieve an effect of shocking insanity. In this first person narrative the narrator tells of his decline from sanity to madness, all because of an obsession with two (or possibly one) black cats. These ebony creatures finally drive him to take the life his wife, whose death he unsuccessfully tries to conceal. This short story easily achieved the effect that Poe was looking for through the use of description of setting, symbolism, plot development, diverse word choice, and detailed character development. In most cases, the setting is usually indelible to a story, but ???The Black Cat??? relies little on this element. This tale could have occurred anywhere and can be placed in any era. This makes the setting the weakest element of ???The Black Cat.??? Next, symbolism is always an integral part of any Poe story. The most obvious of symbolic references in this story is the cat??™s name, Pluto. This is the Roman god of the underworld. Pluto contributes to a strong sense of hell and may even symbolize the devil himself. Another immensely symbolic part of ???The Black Cat??? is the title itself, since onyx cats have long connoted bad luck and misfortune. The most amazing thing about the symbolism in this story or in any other of Poe??™s is that there are probably many symbols that only Poe himself ever knew were in his writings. Furthermore, Poe??™s plot development added much of the effect of shocking insanity to ???The Black Cat.??? To dream up such an intricate plot of perverseness, alcoholism, murders, fire, revival, and punishment is quite amazing. This story has almost any plot element you can imagine a horror story containing. Who could have guessed, at the beginning of the story, that narrator had killed his wife The course of events in ???The Black Cat??™s??? plot is shockingly insane by itself! Moreover, the words in ???The Black Cat??? were precisely chosen to contribute to Poe??™s effect of shocking insanity. As the narrator pens these he creates a splendidly morbid picture of the plot. Perfectly selected, sometimes rare, and often dark, his words create just the atmosphere that he desired in the story. Expressions such as ???apparition,??? ???vile haunts,??? and ???fiendish malevolence??? were added for atmosphere. Another way that Poe used word choice was with synonyms. The cat was not only the ???black cat,??? it was the ???playmate,??? the ???beast,??? the ???brute,??? the ???apparition,??? and the ???monster.??? Finally, character development was most important to Poe??™s effect of shocking insanity in ???The Black Cat.??? Without the perversely insane narrator this story can??™t exist, let alone put across an effect. It is mentioned many times that he loves animals and that he is an alcoholic. In fact many of his rages were caused more by alcohol rather than the black cat. The cat(s) was also vividly developed. At one point early in ???The Black Cat,??? the narrator spends two paragraphs describing his then delightful pet. But as the story progresses both characters change dramatically. The cat is dynamic in that it is hung, reappears with a white splotch on its chest, and has a different disposition than before. The narrator spirals out of control into fits of rage and numerous hideous, unthinkable actions, commencing with the walling up of his own wife (and unbeknownst to him the black cat too) in the cellar. Obviously, the setting, symbolism, plot, word choice, and character development contributed greatly to the effect of shocking insanity in Edgar Allan Poe??™s masterpiece, ???The Black Cat.??? Without these, there would be no story at all. Poe??™s skillful use of all of these elements, the least of these being setting and the greatest of these being character development, creates a shocking tale, which leaves the mind to ponder in all its horror.
In conclusion, Edgar A. Poe is a very interesting man who is known Throughout the world for his work. Poes stories are good in variety, but Mostly all of them are evil or have a sad or bizarre ending. Poes is known as The father of gothic horror. Poe is a very talented writer who has earned his Success