E. Erikson

To demonstrate an understanding of developmental needs throughout each stage of the life cycle, I will explain this using Erik Erikson, who uses a psychosocial approach and was a stagiest. I will also describe the needs using P.I.E.S/C.
E. Erikson explains the life cycle from infancy right through to older adulthood. He does this through 8 stages; Oral-Sensory, Muscular-Anal, Locomotor, Latency, Adolescence, Young Adulthood, Middle Adulthood and Maturity. The oral-sensory stage is from birth to 18 months and the basic conflict at this stage is trust vz mistrust. The infant must form a loving bond with their significant carer. If they do not, they will develop a sense of mistrust which will more than likely affect them in later life. The significant event at this stage is feeding.
During the muscular-anal stage the main conflict is autonomy vz shame and doubt. According to Erikson this stage lasts from 18 months to 3 years. The child is focused on developing physical skills such as walking, grasping and rectal sphincter control. The significant event here is toilet training. Erikson says that different methods of toilet training during this stage can have major effects on the outcome of an individual??™s personality. If parents or carers do not handle toilet training well, the child may develop shame and doubt.
From 3 to 6 years the child is in the locomotor stage where the main conflict is initiative vz guilt. As the child is growing up they become more assertive and begin to develop their independence. However if they are too forceful in this, it will lead to feelings of guilt.
The latency stage lasts from 6 to 12 years and focuses in school. The main conflict here is industry vz inferiority. Children are demanded to learn new things. If they do not manage this they risk feeling inferior and experience feelings of failure and incompetence.
During the adolescence stage, from 12 to 18 years, the young person is focused on peer relationships. The conflict here is identity vz role confusion. The teenager must develop their own identity in areas such as friendships and occupation.
From 19 to 40 years the individual is in the young adult stage and is faced with the conflict of intimacy vz isolation. They focus on love relationships. They must develop loving relationship(s) or suffer feelings of isolation.
Middle adulthood is for 40 to 65 years and is based around parenting. Here the conflict is generativity vz stagnation. The adult strives to satisfy and support the next generation.
The final stage in Erikson??™s theory is maturity, from 65 years to death. The conflict here is ego integrity vz despair. At this stage the significant event is reflection and acceptance of their life. The culmination is a sense if their self as they are and feeling fulfilled.