DRAGON??™S DEN PERSON CENTRED THERAPY PRESENTATION.
DRAGONS DEN THEME??¦??¦??¦??¦..
Good evening, my name is Carl Rogers, I am looking for ?100,000 for a 30% equity stake in my business.
I have a business plan for a counselling theory that could franchise across the world.
The central hypothesis of this approach can be briefly stated:
It is that the individual has within the individual vast resources for self-understanding, for altering the individuals self-concept, attitude and self directed behaviour. These resources can be tapped only if a definable climate of facilative psychological attitudes can be provided, such as congruence, empathy and unconditional positive regard.
How did you develop this approach Where does you inspiration come from
BRIEF HISTORY OF PERSON CENTRED THERAPY.
Person centred therapy was born out of the Humanistic School of psychology. The basic ideas of the Humanistic theory goes back to Greek times, but was not brought into the psychological world until the 1940??™s
The humanistic approach was theorised by an American, Abraham Maslow, who through his research thought every human being had the ability for personal growth.
I am the leading force in Person Centred therapy (Client Centred Therapy, as it is sometimes known). My theories work on the premise that all humans are good and have the ability for personal growth. This theory in the mid 1940??™s was controversial to say the least. In a world where Freud, Jung and Skinner were thought to be the be all and end all. I was influenced by Maslow, Rollo May and Otto Rank other leading Humanistic theorists, continuing my work that started in Rochester Society (an organisation for the protection of children). I have written over 100 books and papers on the subject.
What is wrong with the current counselling theories we have Freud??™s theories have been accepted for years. Is he wrong
No, not at all. Freud??™s theories along with others all have their place in psychology. What I am putting forward is an alternative, quite radical idea. That all people have the ability to find their own solutions to their problems. They just need to be pointed and encouraged in the right direction.
I like to use the analogy about teaching someone to ride a bike??¦??¦??¦..
You cannot write down and show someone how to ride a bike. You have to start in a one-to-one situation. One person on the bike, the other holding. You will run alongside holding the bike whilst the rider builds up confidence. Once the helper thinks that the confidence level is high enough the helper will let go leaving the rider to go off on their own. Sometimes the rider will loose confidence and fall off. The helper is there to help the rider back onto the bike. The process begins again until, until the rider rides off and the helper is no longer needed. This is a lot like counselling, some people get on the bike a ride off straight away, some take a lot longer and need a lot of practice.
You mentioned some words earlier that I am not familiar with:
CONGRUENCE, EMPATHY, UNCONDITIONAL POSITIVE REGARD
I was wondering if you could expand on these a little more
The three main core conditions that I consider essential for effective counselling are:
1. Unconditional Positive Regard (UPR)
Unconditional Positive Regard, Empathy & Congruence are the counsellors or therapist??™s conditions needed to facilitate change. Without these conditions being present a healing relationship cannot form. Rogers three core conditions for therapeutic change as explained:
“The first element could be called genuineness, realness, or congruence. The more the therapist is himself or herself in the relationship, putting up no professional front or personal facade, the greater is the likelihood that the client will change and grow in a constructive manner. This means that the therapist is openly being the feelings and attitudes that are flowing within at the moment. Thus, there is a close matching, or congruence, between what is being experienced at the gut level, what is present in awareness, and what is expressed to the client.
The second attitude of importance in creating a climate for change is acceptance, or caring, –what I have called unconditional positive regard. UPR in a nutshell simply means that the counsellor listens in a non-judgmental warm way to the client. There are no conditions put upon the relationship. By taking this position in the relationship the client will be able to talk about what they are thinking and feeling without fearing a judgement or a rejection. UPR is one of the bits of magic in the relationship that makes the listening and healing possible. It also ties in nicely or is on a similar continuum to congruence, as again communication occurs only between equals.
The third facilitative aspect of the relationship is empathic understanding. This means that the therapist senses accurately Congruence
I have a short clip, where some friends of mine can explain what empathy is:
Empathy or empathic understanding is the next core condition. This is where the therapist picks up on the feelings of the client and reflects this back to the client. This is the process where the therapist can act as a support to the client by making them feel ???as if??™ the therapist is there experiencing their array of emotions.
However there are six, what I call ???CORE CONDITIONS??? that need to be present for the relationship to work.
1. Two persons are in psychological contact.
2. The first, whom we shall term the client, is in a state of incongruence, being vulnerable or anxious.
3. The second person, whom we shall term the therapist is congruence or integrated in the relationship.
4. The therapist experiences unconditional positive regard for the client.
5. The therapist experiences an empathic understanding of the clients internal frame of reference and endeavours to communicate this experience to the client.
6. The communication to the client of the therapist??™s empathic understanding and unconditional positive regard is to a minimal degree achieved.
In the six conditions above we see that the client also has to ???play ball??™, Psychological contact is needed. If the client does not want to be there they are free to withdraw and the counselling processes cannot continue. The client too it seems needs to realise that there is something not working for them in their lives.
If these six conditions exist and continue over a period of time, this is sufficient.
That??™s the theory side of it about covered. What about you Why should I give my children??™s inheritance to you What is your background
I was born in 1902, in a small suburb of Oak Park, Illinois. I was the fourth of six children. When I was a teenager my family moved to a farm in Glen Ellen, Illinois. This is where I became interested in the science of agriculture and decided to go to college at the University of Wisconsin to pursue a career in farming.
Whilst at the University of Wisconsin I decided to change my major to history instead of agriculture. During my junior year I was chosen from ten Americans to spend six months in China to participate in the international Christian youth conference. I was then interested in studying religion and applied to the Union Theological Seminary in New York City. It was here where I began taking psychology classes at the Teachers College of Columbia University.
I was later inspired by such instructors as Watson, Goodwin, Leta Hollingworth and William Heard Kilpatrick and went on to pursue a career at a number of different Universities.
While attending Union Theological Seminary, I thought myself right out of religious work. I did not find what he was looking for in Christianity and turned away from my Christian upbringing and Christian calling. I renounced Christianity and became one of the most respected leaders of humanistic psychology. I confessed, ???I could not work in a field where I would be required to believe in some specified religious doctrine.??? Psychology was attractive to him since I was interested in the ???questions as to the meaning of life,??? but did not want to be restricted by the doctrines of Christianity.
In 1928 the my family moved to Rochester, New York, where I began work as a psychologist for the Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Children. In contrast to Teachers College, many colleagues in Rochester emphasized a psychoanalytic approach to behaviour.
I became well known for my work in the ???client-centred??? approach and my belief was that the clients were in charge of their own happiness. The therapist was there to guide the client in the right direction. I also had a ???self-theory??? in which I describe how the client, with help can change self-perception. I developed my own set of therapeutic techniques to help people move towards fulfilling their potential. These techniques are variously called non-directive therapy, client-centred therapy.
I believe that the success of therapy or counselling has less to with the techniques used by the therapist as with the relationship that the therapist develops with the client. If you develop the right sort of relationship, then that gives the client room to examine their own problems, sources of unhappiness and ways of seeing the world. They can then decide what they want to change and take the steps to change it.
My interest in the client achieving their full potential in life is what I call know as ???self-actualization,??? and becoming a ???fully-functioning person???, (more of that later) I have written over 100 books and paper documents, some of the main ones being
Rogers, Carl R. 1942. Counselling and Psychotherapy.
Rogers, Carl R. 1951. Client-Centred Therapy.
Carl R. Rogers, On Becoming a Person (1961)
After many decades of my research and publications, Carl Rogers finished out the rest of his days in La Jolla, California. In 1987, he died from complications resulting from a fall and hip injury that had happened earlier in that year.
You said you want to franchise this theory world-wide What sort of people would you franchise to What personal skills would they need
Using counselling skills
Counselling skills can be used by anyone either as a separate set of techniques or more usually, as a set of skills either integrated with, or alongside, an already well-established set of professional or ???people??™ skills.
Counselling skills are interpersonal communication skills derived from study
Of therapeutic change in the human beings, used in a manner consistent with the goals and values of the established ethics of the profession of the practitioner in question. In addition, the user of counselling skills will find that the process enhances their own professional skills.
The skills required in counselling, and to be person centred .are, the main core conditions active listening, genuine, non-judgmental, confidentiality, equal (on the same level as the client) and to be supportive.
The three stages helping model (Pete Sanders: First Steps In Counselling)
Stage 1 building the helping relationship and exploration. In the first stage, the helper is creating a warm trusting relationship with the client, enabling the client to look at or explore whatever they chase, the helper is trying to step into the other persons shoes and look at the world from the clients point of view.
Stage 1 skills, the first stage incorporates rogers core conditions of empathy, congruence and (UPR). The specific skills associated are.
??? Developing a trusting relationship
??? Making and maintaining contact,
??? Communicating non-judgemental warmth,
??? Communicating genuineness
??? Active listening and communicating empathy,
??? Identifying, acknowledging and reflecting thoughts, behaviours and feelings,
Stage 2 skills
In this stage the client is helped to see themselves and their life from new perspectives, taking into consideration alternative information and other viewpoints. This is done using all of stage 1 skills plus:
??? Linking and integrating individual issues and problems into themes,
??? Showing deeper understanding and empathy
??? Helping the client focus on specific issues,
Challenging the client??™s views:
??? Offering new perspectives
??? Sharing the helpers experience and feelings
??? Helping the clients move on (goal setting)
??? Helping the client identify what they want to achieve.
Stage 3 skills
Now the helper is trying to look, with the client, at possible ways of acting in the situation to help resolve the problem. Possible outcomes will be considered and risks assessed. The client will then be helped to evaluate the effectiveness of their new behaviour. This is achieved using all of stage 1 and 2 skills.
Once the client has been to the counselling sessions what would the client to get out of your theory
The client would hopefully see a series of changes to their personality during the duration of the relationship. These are what I call the:
???Seven Stages of Process??? forms the basis of individual growth or personal development.
Clients move from a fixed view of the world, which keeps them hostage to fortune. To a more fluid state where the inevitable changes they face in life can be engaged by managing their fears and being honest or congruent with themselves or others.
Client is extremely defensive and resistant to change.
It would be unlikely to see a client at this stage ??“ unless the client was referred to you. Even then the client probably would not interact or take part in a relationship.
Client becomes slightly less rigid and will talk about external events or other people.
As with stage one it would be unlikely a client would present at this stage.
Client talks about him/herself, but as an object. Avoids discussion of present events. The client might talk only about the past or the future. The client will not take ownership ??“ saying things such as ??? It??™s always me??? ??? I??™ll never be able to do anything???.
Rogers believed this to be the stage most people enter therapy.
Client can express present emotions and are beginning to rely more on their own decision-making abilities and increasingly accept more responsibilities for their actions
This is the stage where the client will start to say things such as ???this is what I??™m going to do??? rather than ???what do you think??? This is the stage most clients reach in therapy.
The client continues express present emotions, and are increasingly relying more on their own decision-making abilities. Accepting more and more responsibility for their actions.
The client begins to take more ownership of therapy. Using the word ???I???. Realising that the world is a tough place and tough decisions need to be made.
The client shows rapid growth toward congruence and begins to develop unconditional positive regard for others.
This stage signals the end for formal therapy. As the client reaches this stage they can use what they have learnt and put it into their own lives.
The client is a fully functioning, self-actualised individual who is empathic and shows unconditional positive regard for others. This individual can relate their previous therapy to present day real life situations.
The client will be using all what they have learnt in their daily life. They will accept that they live in the ???real world??? not a fantasy world.
1. OPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE.
Open to change, not defensive.
2. EXISTENTIAL LIVING.
Living in the here and now. Facing challenges of today. Not living in the past or looking to a fantasy future.
3. ORGANISMIC TRUSTING.
We should trust ourselves, saying things such as ???this is right/wrong for me.???
4. EXPERIENTAL FREEDOM.
Takes responsibility for their choices, take ownership for choices/decisions whether they are good or bad.
This can be the arts or science through social concern (volunteering etc). Doing one??™s best at one??™s job. Being passionate about what you do.
Would this approach help everyone
This approach will help a majority of people. We do not have much success with someone who has deep psychosis, schizophrenia etc, as you need to be in psychological contact with the client to be able to help.
I would like to conclude my main presentation and moving away from the usual Dragons Den format, would like to open up any questions from the audience??¦??¦.
Take a vote from the group on whether the Dragon??™s are IN or OUT