Analysis of Factors

Running Head: THE CASE STUDY OF CHRIS

The Case Study of Chris
Analysis of Factors

The Case Study of Chris

??ntrodu?±t??on
?‘hr???? ???? a twelve-year-old, ?‘au?±a????an ????xth grader who ha?? been ??u??pended for the ??e?±ond t??me for bully??ng female ??tudent?? on ???±hool ground??. He l??ve?? w??th h???? ????ngle mother who work?? two job??. There are two younger ?±h??ldren at home (age?? 6 and 10, both boy??). The b??olog???±al father ???? a long-haul tru?±k dr??ver who ??ee?? h???? ??on?? o?±?±a????onally and ha?? re?±ently d?????±lo??ed h???? homo??exual preferen?±e to the fam??ly. ??n ?±ontext of th???? ?±a??e follow??ng a??pe?±t?? w??ll be d?????±u????ed and expla??ned
? The ??nd??v??dual, fam??ly, ?±ommun??ty, mult???±ultural, and ??o?±??etal fa?±tor?? that ?±ontr??bute to the development of d????order?? ??n ?±h??ldren and adole???±ent??.
? The ??nterrelat??on??h??p?? of the fa?±tor??.
? ?‘ontr??but??on of the??e fa?±tor to the development of the ?±l??ent?? d????order ??n the ?±ho??en ?±a??e and prov??de ??pe?±??f???± example??.

Evaluat??on of Fa?±tor?? That ?‘ontr??bute to the Development of D????order?? ??n ?‘h??ldren and Adole???±ent??
L??ke adult??, ?±h??ldren and adole???±ent?? are temperamentally var??able; ??ome are ??hy and ret???±ent, other?? ??o?±??ally exuberant, ??ome method???±al and ?±aut??ou??, ??t??ll other?? are ??mpul????ve and ?±arele????. Whether a ?±h??ld ???? behav??ng l??ke a typ???±al ?±h??ld or ha?? a d????order ???? determ??ned by the pre??en?±e of ??mpa??rment and d????tre???? related to the ??ymptom?? at hand (Biederman 2000). For example, a 12-yr-old g??rl may be fr??ghtened by the pro??pe?±t of del??ver??ng a book report ??n front of her ?±la????. Th???? fear would not be v??ewed a?? ??o?±??al phob??a unle???? her fear?? were ??evere enough to ?±au??e ?±l??n???±ally ????gn??f???±ant ??mpa??rment?? and d????tre???? (Forgatch 2003).
There ???? mu?±h overlap between the ??ymptom?? of many d????order?? and the ?±halleng??ng behav??or?? and emot??on?? of normal ?±h??ldren. Thu??, many of the ??trateg??e?? u??eful for addre??????ng behav??oral problem?? ??n ?±h??ldren ?±an al??o be appl??ed to ?±h??ldren w??th mental d????order??. Furthermore, appropr??ate management of ?±h??ldhood behav??oral problem?? may prevent temperamentally vulnerable ?±h??ldren from develop??ng a full-blown d????order.
The fa?±tor?? that ?±ontr??bute are expla??ned a?? follow??:

Fam??ly Fa?±tor??
The ??nter-parental ?±onfl???±t?? ??urround??ng d??vor?±e have been a????o?±??ated w??th the development of p??y?±holog???±al d????order. However, ??t ha?? been noted that although ??ome ????ngle parent?? and the??r ?±h??ldren be?±ome ?±hron???±ally depre????ed and report ??n?±rea??ed ??tre???? level?? after ??eparat??on (Bird 2004), other?? do relat??vely well. Forgat?±h ??ugge??ted that for ??ome ????ngle parent??, the event?? ??urround??ng ??eparat??on and d??vor?±e ??et off a per??od of ??n?±rea??ed depre??????on and ??rr??tab??l??ty wh???±h lead?? to lo???? of ??upport and fr??end??h??p, ??ett??ng ??n pla?±e the r????k of more ??rr??tab??l??ty, ??neffe?±t??ve d?????±??pl??ne, and poor problem ??olv??ng out?±ome??. The ??neffe?±t??ve problem ??olv??ng ?±an re??ult ??n more depre??????on, wh??le the ??n?±rea??e ??n ??rr??table behav??or may ????multaneou??ly lead the ?±h??ld to be?±ome ant????o?±??al (Barklay 2001).
??n add??t??on to the effe?±t of mar??tal ?±onfl???±t on the ?±h??ld, ?±onfl???±t ?±an al??o ??nfluen?±e parent??ng behav??our??. Mar??tal ?±onfl???±t ha?? been a????o?±??ated w??th ??n?±on??????tent parent??ng, h??gher level?? of pun????hment w??th a ?±on?±urrent redu?±t??on ??n rea??on??ng and reward??, a?? well a?? w??th parent?? tak??ng a negat??ve per?±ept??on of the??r ?±h??ld?? adju??tment (Barklay 2001).
The ??nter-parental ?±onfl???±t?? ??urround??ng d??vor?±e have been a????o?±??ated w??th the development of p??y?±holog???±al d????order. However, ??t ha?? been noted that although ??ome ????ngle parent?? and the??r ?±h??ldren be?±ome ?±hron???±ally depre????ed and report ??n?±rea??ed ??tre???? level?? after ??eparat??on (Barklay 2001), other?? do relat??vely well. For ??ome ????ngle parent??, the event?? ??urround??ng ??eparat??on and d??vor?±e ??et off a per??od of ??n?±rea??ed depre??????on and ??rr??tab??l??ty wh???±h lead?? to lo???? of ??upport and fr??end??h??p, ??ett??ng ??n pla?±e the r????k of more ??rr??tab??l??ty, ??neffe?±t??ve d?????±??pl??ne, and poor problem ??olv??ng out?±ome??. The ??neffe?±t??ve problem ??olv??ng ?±an re??ult ??n more depre??????on, wh??le the ??n?±rea??e ??n ??rr??table behav??or may ????multaneou??ly lead the ?±h??ld to be?±ome ant????o?±??al (Forgatch 2003).

?‘ommun??ty, Mult???±ultural, And ??o?±??etal Fa?±tor??
L??fe ??tre????or?? ??u?±h a?? poverty, unemployment, over?±rowd??ng, and ??ll health are known to have an adver??e effe?±t on parent??ng and to be therefore related to the development of p??y?±holog???±al d????order. The pre??en?±e of major l??fe ??tre????or?? ??n the l??ve?? of fam??l??e?? w??th p??y?±holog???±al d????ordered ?±h??ldren ha?? been found to be two to four t??me?? greater than ??n other fam??l??e??.
Mother?? per?±ept??on of the ava??lab??l??ty of ??upport??ve and ??o?±??al ?±onta?±t ha?? al??o been ??mpl???±ated ??n ?±h??ld ?±onta?±t d????order. Mother?? who do not bel??eve ??upport??ve ??o?±??al ?±onta?±t ???? ava??lable are termed “??n??ular” and have been found to u??e more aver????ve ?±on??equen?±e?? w??th the??r ?±h??ldren than non-??n??ular mother?? (Bird 2004).

The ??nterrelat??on??h??p?? of the Fa?±tor??
The fa?±tor?? g??ven above are very ?±lo??ely ??nterrelated ??n development of p??hy?±olog???±al d????order?? ??n ?±h??ldren. Re??ear?±h ha?? ??ugge??ted that parent?? of ?±h??ldren w??th p??y?±holog???±al d????orders frequently la?±k ??everal ??mportant parent??ng ??k??ll??. Parent?? have been reported to be more v??olent and ?±r??t???±al ??n the??r u??e of d?????±??pl??ne, more ??n?±on??????tent, errat???±, and perm????????ve, le???? l??kely to mon??tor the??r ?±h??ldren, a?? well a?? more l??kely to pun????h pro-??o?±??al behav??our?? and to re??nfor?±e negat??ve behav??our?? (Bird 2004). A ?±oer?±??ve pro?±e???? ???? ??et ??n mot??on dur??ng wh???±h a ?±h??ld e???±ape?? or avo??d?? be??ng ?±r??t???±??zed by h???? or her parent?? through produ?±??ng an ??n?±rea??ed number of negat??ve behav??our??. The??e behav??our?? lead to ??n?±rea????ngly aver????ve parental rea?±t??on?? wh???±h ??erve to re??nfor?±e the negat??ve behav??our??.
D??fferen?±e?? ??n affe?±t have al??o been noted ??n p??y?±holog???±al d????ordered ?±h??ldren. ??n general the??r affe?±t ???? le???? po????t??ve, they appear to be depre????ed, and are le???? re??nfor?±??ng to the??r parent?? (Biederman 2000). The??e attr??bute?? ?±an ??et the ???±ene for the ?±y?±le of aver????ve ??ntera?±t??on?? between parent?? and ?±h??ldren. A ?±h??ld?? fam??ly ??y??tem ha?? an ??mportant role ??n the prevent??on and treatment of p??y?±holog???±al d????orders. The ?±h??ld need?? to be ?±on????dered a?? a ?±omponent of a ??y??tem, rather than a?? a ????ngle ent??ty. Re??ear?±h ??upport?? the not??on that parent?? of p??y?±holog???±ally d????ordered ?±h??ldren have underly??ng def???±??t?? ??n ?±erta??n fundamental parent??ng ??k??ll?? (Biederman 2000).

Parent P??y?±holog???±al Fa?±tor??
??t ???? known that a ?±h??ld?? r????k of develop??ng p??y?±holog???±al d????orders ???? ??n?±rea??ed ??n the event of parent p??y?±hopathology. Maternal depre??????on, paternal al?±ohol????m and/or ?±r??m??nal????m and ant????o?±??al behav??or ??n e??ther parent have been ??pe?±??f???±ally l??nked to the d????order.
There are two v??ew?? a?? to why maternal depre??????on ha?? th???? effe?±t. The f??r??t ?±on????der?? that mother?? who are depre????ed m????per?±e??ve the??r ?±h??ld?? behav??our a?? maladju??ted or ??nappropr??ate (Forgatch 2003). The ??e?±ond ?±on????der?? the ??nfluen?±e depre??????on ?±an have on the way a parent rea?±t?? toward m????behav??our. Depre????ed mother?? have been ??hown to d??re?±t a h??gher number of ?±ommand?? and ?±r??t???±????m?? toward?? the??r ?±h??ldren, who ??n turn re??pond w??th ??n?±rea??ed non?±ompl??an?±e and dev??ant ?±h??ld behav??our. Web??ter-??tratton and Dahl ??ugge??ted that depre????ed and ??rr??table mother?? ??nd??re?±tly ?±au??e behav??our problem?? ??n the??r ?±h??ldren through ??n?±on??????tent l??m??t ??ett??ng, emot??onal unava??lab??l??ty, and re??nfor?±ement of ??nappropr??ate behav??or?? through negat??ve attent??on (Bird 2004).

?‘ontr??but??on of Fa?±tor to the Development of the ?‘l??ent?? D????order
A?? ev??dent from ?‘hr???? ?±a??e the ?±h??ld ???? a negle?±ted and ??gnored ?±h??ld fa?±??ng parent??™?? ??gnoran?±e and ?±erta??n other fam??ly ??????ue?? that??™?? why he behave?? ??n an ??nhumane way ??o that he ?±an get attent??on of other??. ?‘hr???? ha?? developed th???? d????order due from a d????advantaged (Bird 2004), dy??fun?±t??onal, and d????organ??zed home env??ronment?? be?±au??e h???? father ha?? revealed a homo??exual relat??on??h??p and he ???? be??ng ??gnored by h???? parent??.
??o?±??al problem?? and peer group reje?±t??on have been found to ?±ontr??bute to del??nquen?±y may al??o be the fa?±tor to ha??ten h???? wor??ening ?±ond??t??on. A?? ?‘hr???? ???? exh??b??t??ng del??nquent and aggre??????ve behav??or?? that may have d????t??n?±t??ve ?±ogn??t??ve and p??y?±holog???±al prof??le?? when ?±ompared to ?±h??ldren w??th other Mental Health D????order?? problem?? and ?±ontrol group??.
References
Biederman, J., Newcorn, J., & Sprich, S. 2000, Comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with conduct, depressive, anxiety, and other disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148(5), 564-577.
Barklay, R.A., & Fischer, M., Edelbrock, E.S. & Smallish, L. 2001, The adolescent outcome of hyperactive children diagnosed by research criteria, I: An eight year prospective follow-up study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
Bird, H. R., Gould, M. S., & Staghezza Jaramillo, B. M. 2004,The comorbidity of ADHD in a community sample of children aged 6 through 16 years. Journal of Child and Family Studies.
Forgatch, M. 2003, Patterns and outcome in family problem solving: The disrupting effect of negative emotions. Journal of Marriage and the Family
Kazdin, A. 2002, Treatment of antisocial behaviour in children: Current status and future directions. Psychological Bulletin